The Panchanga is a combination of five factors that show time namely Vaara (day of the week), Nakshatra, Tithi, Karana, and Nithyayoga.
The time from one sunrise to the other is called Vaara.
What is Panchangam?
There are 7 weekdays:
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday
Aswini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrigasira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pushyami, Ashlesha, Makha, Purvaphalguni, Utaraphalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishakha, Anuradha, Jyeshta, Moola, Purvashada, Uttarashada, Shravana, Dhanishta, Satabhisha, Purvabhadra, Uttarabhadra, Revati
Tithi is the value when the longitude of Sun is deducted from the longitude of Moon. Nithyayogam is the value of addition of these two longitudes. There are 15 Tithis, namely Pradhama, Dwitheeya, Thritheeya, Chathurthi, Panchami, Shashthi, Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadasi, Dwadasi, Thrayodasi, Chaturdasi, Pournami/Amavasya.
Karanam is half of Tithi. There are 28 Tithis from Shukla Pradhama Uttarashada to Krishna Chathurdasi Purvashada. So there are 56 Karanams.
1) Lion (Bava), 2) Tiger (Balava), 3) Pig (Koulava), 4) Ass (Taitila), 5) Elephant (Gara), 6) Cow (Vanija), 7) Vishti (Bhadra).
These 7 Charakaranas are repeated 8 times.
The four Karanas including Shukla Pradhama’s Purvashada, Krishna Chathurdasi’s Uttarashada and the two parts of Amavasi are permanent karanas. These come only once. They are 1) Bird (Sakuna) 2) Four-legged animal (Chatushpada) 3) Snake (Naga) 4) Worm (Kimstugna).
1) Vishkambha, 2) Preethi, 3) Ayushman, 4) Soubhagya, 5) Shobhana, 6) Athiganda, 7) Sukarma, 8) Dhrithi, 9) Soolam, 10) Ganda, 11) Vridhi, 12) Dhruva, 13) Vyaghatha, 14) Harshana, 15) Vajra, 16) Siddhi, 17) Vyathipatha, 18) Variyan, 19) Parigha, 20) Shiva, 21) Siddha, 22) Sadhya, 23) Subhra, 24) Braahma, 25) Mahendra, 26) Vaidhruthi, 27) Shubha
Their length, as the length of the stars, is 13 degree 20 minutes. Nithyayoga is the sum of the longitudes of Sun and Moon.
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